Monday, August 29, 2016

The Sun and Moon as a Binary Set

God made two great lights--the greater light to govern the day and the lesser light to govern the night. He also made the stars.  Genesis 1:16

Alice C. Linsley

The sun and the moon were considered a binary set among Abraham's ancestors. That means that the ancient Ha'biru (Hebrew) thought of the sun and the moon as entities that naturally belong together, as male and female belong together. The sun and the moon also were regarded as ruling over their separate by connected dominions of day and night.

Some peoples of the ancient world thought of the sun and the moon as the eyes of the Creator who dwelt "on high" or in the heavens. The sun was regarded as the Creator's right eye and the moon was the left eye. The right eye was said to be have better vision than the left eye.

The sun was associated with masculine virtues. This is because it is the stronger and the greater light (Genesis 1:16). It was believed that the sun's rays are like seeds that fall to earth and cause plants to grow. In other words, the sun was said to inseminate the earth.

The moon was associated with feminine virtues because it is the sun's companion, as the wife is to her husband. It is the smaller and weaker light in the sky. Because the moon affects water, tides, and body fluids in a repeating cycle there is a natural association of the moon with the periodicity of the female's menstrual cycle. Many ancient peoples associated pregnancy with the moon.The moon influences the female's monthly cycle which is why menstruation is called le moment de la lune ("the time of the moon") in French. The moon also stimulates female lactation.

The sun was the viewed as superior in size and strength to the moon. Likewise, the male rulers of ancient Kush and Egypt appeared with skin darkened by the Sun as a sign of masculine strength and authority.  However, their queens appeared in public with their skin covered in white powder (see image below).

Among Abraham's ancestors the sun was honored as the Creator's symbol or emblem. They conceived of God as the Great Chief who daily makes his circuit between the two wives dawn (eastern horizon) and dust (western horizon). This is why none of the rulers listed in Genesis placed their wives on an east-west axis, except for the Lamech who posed himself as God's equal. Bible scholar Theodore Gaster noted this belief. He explained that the names of Lamech's two wives, Ada and Tzillah, refer to dawn and dust (The Schocken Bible, Vol. 1, p. 28).

Archaic Shell Technology

Alice C. Linsley
Oldest known symbolic engraving

Archaic humans were producing abstract symbols much earlier than originally thought. This shell found on Java in the late 1800's was carved half a million years ago by archaic humans. The zigzag pattern is like that found on stone carvings in Africa. The pattern appears on the 77,000 year old red ochre stone (below) found in the Blombos Cave in South Africa.

Ostrich eggshells were used by prehistoric peoples to carry water from place to place, like canteens. Ostrich eggs were also used as perfume containers. These eggshell vessels were decorated, as is seen on these fragments of 65,000 year ostrich egg shells (below).

The decorated ostrich egg shells (left) come from a sample of 270 engraved eggshell fragments, mostly excavated at Diepkloof Rock Shelter in South Africa. They display two standard design patterns, according to a team led by archaeologist Pierre-Jean Texier of the University of Bordeaux in Talence, France.

In the Oriental Museum there are examples of ostrich eggs which have been decorated over their entire surfaces.

Decorated eggshells were placed in the graves of children in Sudan and Nubia. Painted ostrich eggs were placed by grieving parents in the graves of their children. These eggs represented the hope of eternal life or immortality. At Naqada, a decorated ostrich egg replaced the owner's missing head. This egg is now in the Ashmolean Museum in Oxford.

The painted ostrich egg shown below dates to the 7th century BC and was found on the island of Cyprus.

Credit: De Agostini Picture Library 
The discovery of small perforated sea shells in Morocco is evidence of bead adornments dating to 82,000 years ago. Shells were used to produce necklaces. The 82,000 year old shell beads were unearthed in the Cave of Pigeons in Taforalt, in north-east Morocco. The cache consisted of 13 shells belonging to the species Nassarius gibbosulus. Some of shell beads are still covered with red ocher.

Red ocher was used in burial and many of the oldest shell necklaces have been found at grave sites. The perforated shells below are thought to be the oldest in the world.

(Credit: Marian Vanhaeren and Francesco d'Errico / 2007)

Credit: Christopher Henshilwood
Similar shell beads (shown above) were unearthed from Still Bay at Blombos Cave in South Africa. These date to about 75,000 year ago. Caves or rock shelters served as the temporary residences of prehistoric peoples as they moved from place to place. These also served as places of burial. 

Such rock shelters have been found in the Judean hills near Bethlehem. Human habitation in the area of Bethlehem between (100,000-10,000 BC) is well-attested along the north side of Wadi Khareitun where there are three caves: Iraq al-Ahmar, Umm Qal’a, and Umm Qatafa. These caves were in a wooded landscape overlooking a river. At Umm Qatafa archaeologists found the earliest evidence of the domestic use of fire in Palestine. In these caves archaeologists also found clay vessels decorated with red paint, ropes, reed mats, leather, wood artifacts, flint implements, stone grinding and pounding tools, and necklaces made of bone and shell.

Friday, August 26, 2016

The Pillars of Solomon's Temple

Many features of Solomon's Temple reflect very ancient temple building practices among his ruler-priest ancestors. One of these features is the use of pillars. The temple at On was constructed with many pillars or columns. The people who lived there called the shrine city Iunu, meaning place of pillars" or "pillared place of the Annu." The Annu were the early builders of Biblical On.

Joseph married the daughter of the priest of On (Genesis 41:50). In Jerome's Latin Bible On is called Heliopoleos which in the Greek language is Heliopolis, meaning "City of the Sun."

Solomon's temple in Jerusalem was built under the direction of King Hiram of Tyre (I Kings 9:11, II Chronicles 2:3). King Hiram and David, and Solomon were kinsmen. They had some ancestors in common. as analysis of the royal names indicates. King Hiram sent skilled artisans to help David build a palace in Jerusalem. Probably some of the same builders helped with the construction of Solomon's Temple.

The construction of temples was mainly under the supervision of royal priests. In the ancient world they were known as 'Apiru, Ha'piru, or Ha'biru. The English variant of Ha'biru is the word Hebrew.

Many of the Habiru were devotees of the Creator and his son Horus. Variants of the name Horus are found among many Hebrew priests and rulers. These include Hiram, Horam, Harum, Hur, Hor and Harun (Aaron). According to Midrash, Hur was Moses’ brother-in-law. Hur’s grandson was one of the builders of the Tabernacle. I Chronicles 4:4 lists Hur as the "father" of Bethlehem, also called "the city of David."

These ruler-priests are therefore known as "Horites" and one of their territories was the land of Edom, where Abraham settled. The Horite rulers of Edom are listed in Genesis 36.

Solomon's temple was arranged on an east-west axis as was typical of most Horite temples. The Horites regarded the Sun as the symbol of the Creator. That is why the shrine city of On is also known as Heliopolis, meaning "City of the Sun."

In the Horite Hebrew religion it was believed that a virgin from their people would conceive the "Son" of God or the "Seed" of the Creator (Genesis 3:15.) This would happen when the young woman was "overshadowed" by the Sun. The archetype of the Virgin Mary among the Horite Hebrew was Hathor-Meri, the mother of Horus. She is shown in ancient images with the Sun over her head (shown above).

A shrine dedicated to Hathor was discovered at the southwestern edge of Mt. Timna in Israel by Professor Beno Rothenberg of Hebrew University. Hathor was the patroness of metal workers.

Another feature of Solomon's temple that reflected ancient Horite practice was the naming of pillars in memory of famous ancestors, especially ancestors who were known for living righteous lives. The entrance to Solomon's temple was flanked by twin pillars dedicated to his righteous ancestors Jochin and Boaz. Boaz married Ruth who gave birth of Obed, the father of Jesse, the father of David.

David and Solomon were of the ruler-priest lines that can be traced from before the time of Abraham to Joseph and Mary, the mother of Jesus. The Angel Gabriel told Mary that she would conceive by being overshadowed. When Mary asked the Angel, "How shall this be, seeing I know not a man?" Gabriel explained, "The Holy Ghost shall come upon thee, and the power of the Highest shall overshadow thee: therefore the Holy One which shall be born of thee shall be called the "Son of God." (Luke 1:34, 35)

Mary was the daughter of the shepherd-priest Joachim. Variant spellings of Joachim include Jachin, Jochin, and Joktan. Abraham's first born son was named Joktan.

Related reading: Sacred Mountains and PillarsThe Urheimat of the Canaanite Y; Abraham's Habiru Ancestors; Edom and the Horites

Friday, July 29, 2016

The Antiquity of the Edomite Rulers

Alice C. Linsley

Note that both Hebron (where Sarah lived) and Beersheba (where Keturah lived) are in Idumea or ancient Edom. Abraham's territory extended on a north-south axis between the settlements of his two wives and was entirely in the region the Greeks called Idumea. Idumea means "land of red people" and Esau is described in Genesis has having a distinctive red skin tone, typical of the Edomite rulers. The words Edom and Adam both relate to the word dam/dm - blood, and signify the color red.

Even the hills of Edom appear red due to the iron deposits. Deuteronomy 8:9 describes Edom in these words: "A land whose stones are iron and out of whose hills you can dig copper."

Edom was ruled by Horite kings. Seir the Horite is listed in Genesis 36 as one of the Edomite kings. He was a contemporary of Esau the Elder.

In this diagram of the Edomite rulers listed in Genesis 36 we see that there were two chiefs named Esau. Esau the Elder married Adah. Esau the Younger married Oholibamah.

Jeremiah refers to Edom and Teman of Edom as seats of wisdom. The prophet writes: Concerning Edom: This is what the Lord Almighty says: 'Is there no longer wisdom in Teman? Has counsel perished from the prudent? Has their wisdom decayed? (Jeremiah 49:7)

The wisdom to which Jeremiah refers is that of the Horite ruler-priests who were renown in the ancient world for their wisdom and skill at metal work. The Horites were a caste of royal priests and sages who were devotees of Ra, Horus and Hathor. Hathor was the patroness of metal workers. The word "Horite" is the English variant of the word Horim, the term Jews use when speaking of their ancestors.

Timna or Tema plays an important role in early Biblical history. Known by Arabs as Taima, this water source lies about 70 miles north-east of Dedan. During the Chalcolithic Period, Kushite artisans lived here in subterranean dwellings carved out of the limestone with metal tools. The Bible refers to these cave-dwellers as Dedanites. Dedan, Tema and Buz comprized a Horite confederation. Rock drawings from the 13 century BC have been found at Timna.

Timna is the site of 6,000 years old mines. The oldest mines were worked almost continuously until the Roman Period. There are ancient rock carvings showing warriors in chariots, holding axes and shields. A temple dedicated to Hathor was discovered at the southwestern edge of Mt. Timna by Professor Beno Rothenberg of Hebrew University.

The Chalcolithic metal works at Timna were found at the Wadi Nehushtan in the foothills along the western fringe of the southern Arabah Valley. The smelting works, slag and flints at this site were found to be identical to those discovered near Beersheba where Abraham spent much of his time. The metal workers of Timna and the metal workers of Beersheba were kin and the patroness of their mining operations was Hathor, the mother of Horus, who the Horite venerated. Hathor's temple there dates to 1318-1304 BC. In the temple courtyard there was a workshop for casting copper figurines as votive offerings.

In his book Timna, Rothenberg concluded that the peoples living in the area were "partners not only in the work but in the worship of Hathor." (Timna, p. 183)

The wisdom of the Horites extended to medicine, astronomy, commerce, navigation, natural sciences, metal work, stone work, architecture, and writing. They were wise men, prophets and scribes. The term "Nabatean" is derived from the name Naba or Nabu, the guardian of scribes and prophets. The cult of Nabu was introduced into Mesopotamia and Babylon by the Kushites. Some Kushite kings bore the name Nabu, as with Nabu-shum-libur, an early Kushite king in Babylon, and Nabu-aplu-iddina. The Hebrew word nabi, meaning prophet is related.

Genesis 36 speaks to the antiquity of the Edomite rulers
"These are the kings who reigned in the land of Edom, before any king reigned over the children of Israel. Bela, the son of Beor, reigned in Edom. The name of his city was Dinhabah. Bela died, and Jobab, the son of Zerah of Bozrah, reigned in his place. Jobab died, and Husham of the land of the Temanites reigned in his place. Husham died, and Hadad, the son of Bedad, who struck Midian in the field of Moab, reigned in his place. The name of his city was Avith. Hadad died, and Samlah of Masrekah reigned in his place."
An archaeological survey in the early 2000's, led by Dr. Thomas E. Levy, yielded early dates than had usually be assigned to the Edomite culture. The team uncovered scarabs, ceramics, metal arrowheads, hammers, and grinding stones and found slag heaps.

Edom had a large copper ore zone with industrial scale copper production. Radiocarbon analysis of charred wood, grain and fruit in several sediment layers revealed two major phases of copper processing, first in the 12th and 11th centuries, and later in the 10th and 9th BC.

Evidence was found of the construction of fortifications and over 100 building complexes. Khirbat en-Nahas is 30 miles north of Petra in Jordan. Khirbat en-Nahas means "ruins of copper" in Arabic. Nahash means serpent in Hebrew. As an adjective it means shining bright, like burnished copper. Khirbat en-Nahas was one of the first ancient occupation sites in the Edomite lowlands to be investigated. The ruins spread over 24 acres, and the fortifications enclose an area 240 by 240 feet. 

Dr. Levy stated, "Only a complex society such as a paramount chiefdom or primitive kingdom would have the organizational know-how to produce copper metal on such an industrial scale." 

Nabatean warriors on camels
The 400-acre Edomite complex at Petra reflects Horite beliefs. At Petra we find the same pillared architecture of the Horite shrines of the Nile. The first ruler of Petra, Obodas, took his name from the Edo/Edomite name for ruler which is Oba.

The linguist Helene Longpre points out that Demotic Egyptian (7th-5th century BC) and Nabatean Aramaic most closely correspond to Meroitic or Old Nubian. (Longpre, "Investigation of the Ancient Meroitic Writing System", Rhode Island College, 1999.) 

The mysterious Shasu were related to the Horites of Edom and according to monument inscriptions in Nubia, they called upon the God YHWH.  Lists of place names in Nubian temples of Soleb and Amara West record six toponyms located in “the land of Shasu.” A monument of Ramesses II claims that he “has plundered the Shasu-land, captured the mountain of Seir” in Edom; a 19th Dynasty letter mentions “the Shasu-tribes of Edom” and Ramesses III declares that he has “destroyed the Seirites among the tribes of the Shasu.” Clearly, the Egyptians regarded the Shasu as a prominent part of the Edomite population which is described in Genesis 36.

Monday, July 25, 2016

Finding Jesus and Knowing Jesus

Alice C. Linsley

In this video David Gibson is interviewed about a book which he co-authored with Michael McKinley. The book is Finding Jesus: Faith, Fact, Forgery. I recommend that readers of Biblical Anthropology watch the video and read the book. I rarely recommend books and videos.

The book explores the question: "Who was the historical Jesus?" by looking at six relics and artifacts, These include a burial box with the name Yeshua. a piece of the Cross, a linen shroud, bones of John the Baptist, and an Egyptian papyrus referring to a "wife" of Jesus. Whether these relics and artifacts are authentic or frauds hardly matters. The Christian faith is grounded in the personal conviction that Jesus Christ is the Son of God who came into the world to save sinners and to bring us to eternal life. 

The discoveries of biblical archaeology cannot verify the existence of Jesus or clarify His identity. In part, this is because archaeologists digging in Israel tend to be Jewish and interpret the evidence through a post-exilic [Talmudic] rabbinic lens.

Even non-Jewish archaeologists tend to misinterpret that artifacts that speak of the Messianic hope that is absolutely and perfectly fulfilled in the unique person of Jesus Christ.

The book and video are worth your time, but do not expect great depth. They do not delve into anthropologically significant data that makes it clear that Jesus is the long expected Righteous Ruler who would overcome death and lead his people to immortality. For some of that data, I encourage you to view this video. This is needed to go beyond finding Jesus to knowing Jesus.

Related reading: The Sun and Celestial Horses; The Luwian: Another Theory; The Sun and the Sacred; Who is Jesus?; Righteous Rulers and the ResurrectionDid Jesus Have a Wife?; Dismantling Outdated Interpretations

Friday, June 24, 2016

Dismantling Outdated Interpretations

Alice C. Linsley

A reader of JUST GENESIS left a comment after reading the article Why Prejudice Against A Scientific Approach to the Bible?  This was the question asked by Manna: "Is archeology biased and based more on a european type of model than facts? Or, is current research and evidence dismantling the bias of the past? Are we closer to a more accurate picture or further away?"

I responded that archaeological findings constitute important physical evidence, but artifacts are often misinterpreted or assigned significance that is not consistent with the larger picture. I have seen many examples of this over the years.

One example is the unfortunate misrepresentation of the solar image overshadowing the queen at the Yazilikaya shrine in Turkey (shown below). This relief of great significance shows the divine appointment of a royal couple. The woman wears the Sun in the horns as a sign of divine overshadowing of the Sun, the Creator emblem. This is consistent with the image of Hathor, the mother of the "son" of the Creator (shown right). Hathor was known among Abraham's Horite Habiru/Hebrew ancestors as the mother of Horus.
Stone relief dates to 13th century BC
The king also wears the horns as a solar crown indicating divine appointment as the Creator's representative on Earth. Unfortunately, archaeologists have missed this entirely. They interpreted this image as Sun goddess (left) and Moon god (right), thus rendering the meaning exactly opposite of what is depicted.  Among the peoples of the R1b Haplogroup, the Creator was consistently associated with the Sun and divine insemination.

Solar imagery is a key feature of the religion of the archaic rulers and it involved expectation of a divine ruler who would overcome death and lead his people to immortality.

It is common that interpretations of the past are set aside when fresh eyes investigate the evidence. There is always resistance to new approaches such as Biblical Anthropology which does not rely on a single discipline, but rather seeks to gain a wider picture by looking at multiple sciences, including linguistics, DNA studies, anthropology and climate studies.

Manna also wrote,
"I think the reason people ask you "what color was Abraham?" is because your research goes even against the images of Abraham and others in the Old Testament...Those images for many are not African based at all. I grew up down south (the Bible belt of America) and there was nothing of any "red, dark, ruddy, brown, dark, etc" skin tones in images of Abraham, etc. in those early books of Genesis. I think the resistance is so deep that even some researchers and scientist cannot accept such--even despite the clear evidence. Some people will never accept a "ruddy, brown, red, olive or even dark" type of Abraham. Does it matter? For some of us, it does for many different reasons."

To Manna, I responded, "The assertion of a red skin tone for Abraham is strictly based on the data of the Bible."

Let us consider some of the pertinent data of the Bible.

Abraham was a descendant of Adam. Adam refers to the color of blood. Adam is named as the founding ancestor of the rulers listed in Genesis 4 and 5. These are the ruling lines of Kain and Seth, and analysis of the marriage and ascendancy pattern of these rulers reveals that the lines intermarried.

He was also a descendant of Kush, an African of the Upper Nile Valley where red Nubians lived.

His ancestors were Proto-Saharan cattle herders for whom the Sun was a sacred image, the emblem of the Creator who appoints rulers (and the Woman of Genesis 3:15) by divine overshadowing. The image below is actually a Messianic image of the calf of God to be sacrificed to make atonement for the people. This is why Aaron, a descendant of Seir the Horite, fabricated such an image.

One of Abraham's ancestors was Noah, a ruler in the region of Lake Chad. There has been considerable resistance to this assertion , especially among men who have written books in which they present Noah as a Mesopotamian.Yet none who criticised this assertion has attempted to refute or even address the supporting data.

Both Lake Chad and the Upper Nile were populated by people in the R1B Haplogroup. This Haplogroup is usually regarded as European, rather than African, but it is both, as is evident from the map below showing the R1b distribution.

Abraham's territory was entirely in the land of Edom, ruled by Horite Habiru/Hebrew kings. Many are listed in Genesis 36. Edom and Adam share the same dm root which refers to the color red. The ancient Greeks called Edom "Idumea" which means land of red people.

Note that both Hebron (where Sarah lived) and Beersheba (where Keturah lived) are in Idumea. Abraham's territory extended between the settlements of his two wives and was entirely in the region the Greeks called Idumea.

In the Genesis 36 list, diagrammed below, we find Esau who is specifically described as red or ruddy in the Bible.

David was a descendant of Abraham and he also is described as red. He had Edomite blood, as did many of the great rulers of Israel, including Herod the Great whose ancestry is found in Horite Petra.

Related reading; Was Abraham a Black Man?; Two Named Esau; Haplogroups of Interest to Biblical Anthropologists; The Kushite-Kushan Connection; Edo, Edom, Idumea; The Genesis King Lists

Wednesday, May 25, 2016

Support Biblical Anthropology Research

Alice C. Linsley

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